MDMA, MDA, a popular club drug
The conversation will focus on such a famous drug as MDMA, its history of creation and the peak of popularity, MDMA is still considered the king of club parties and is actively used by young people. How harmful is MDMA, MDA? Who invented it? This will be discussed in our article …
MDMA was first synthesized in Germany in 1912, patented in 1914 and tested for possible use as an appetite suppressant. For the first time MDMA was released by the pharmaceutical company Merckx in 1912 in Germany and was sold in the form of pulls.
The substance MDMA was first known under the name “Adam” and only later it received a name under which it is now known to everybody – Ecstasy. Distributor MDMA clearly preferred to call it “Empathy”, but, thinking that many of his buyers may not know what this word means, decided to choose in favor of the second name.
1912 – MDMA first synthesizes the company “Merck Pharmaceuticals”.
1914 – “Merck Pharmaceuticals” patents MDMA.
1953 – The Military Chemical Center studies the toxicity of MDMA, experiments are conducted on pigs, rats, mice, monkeys and dogs. These studies have shown that MDMA is less toxic than MDA.
1965 – Alexander Shulgin synthesizes MDMA, but does not experiment on himself yet.
1967 – The first small clandestine laboratories produce MDMA.
1968 – Alexander Shulgin begins to experiment with MDMA and presents his research to other scientists.
August 1970 – the first publicly published report on the case of MDMA as a drug.
1976 – the first academic article on MDMA.
1977 – MDMA begins to sell in the streets as a drug.
1977 – Great Britain includes MDMA in class “A”. Class “A” is the most controlled category of drugs in England.
1977 – 1981 Eight people were registered in intensive care units in connection with the use of MDMA.
1981 – 1985 No registered cases of “poisoning” of MDMA for 4 years.
July 1, 1985 – DEA temporarily places MDMA in list I.
1987 – The first report of human death due to the use of MDMA.
December 22, 1987 – MDMA removed from list I.
March 23, 1988 MDMA is placed back to list I.
1991 – Alexander and Anne Shulgins publish “PiHKAL”, documenting more than 250 narcotic compounds, including MDMA, mescaline, 2C-B, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-2 and many others.
1994 -1999 During these 5 years, there were 27 ecstasy-related deaths in the United States.
2000 – 2001 Almost 20 deaths worldwide are attributed to tablets containing PMA sold as Ecstasy.
In the fifties, the US military industry tried unsuccessfully to use MDMA as a “truth serum”. It was just one of many drugs tested in the early 1950s by the US Army for possible use in chemical warfare. He was given the code “Experimental Agent 1475”.
The real story began with the research of chemist Alexander Shulgin, who not only received this drug in the mid-1960s in his laboratory, but also tried it on himself. Ecstasy did not show much interest until the mid-1970s, when Alexander Shulgin introduced ecstasy as a drug suitable for use in psychotherapy. Psychotherapists believed that the drug causes mild effects, which are mainly characterized by a feeling of empathy, understanding of others and the release of emotions. It was also reported that the drug has the potential to restore repressed memories in psychotherapy and to strengthen insights (that is, insights that give an unexpected understanding of something important), especially those that relate to relationships.
In the late 1970s, some professional psychotherapists, after testing the substances of the Ecstasy group on themselves, started giving them to their patients. MDMA became an adjunct to psychotherapy, and it was believed that its use was based on an experimental study.
By the early 1980s, ecstasy had shifted from a psychoanalytic couch to a wider society. He infiltrated nightclubs primarily in Texas in the US and in the UK. In 1983, MDMA began to be actively disseminated by a group that later became known as the Texas Group. It was sold in bars in Dallas and Austin and soon became the best-selling of all “drugs for recreation,” widely known and winning the status of an elite drug among psychotherapists.
This drug became fashionable in Western countries in the second half of the 1980s; And an estimated 10 to 40 percent of older adolescents and young adults at least once tried this substance. During the 1980s, the use of MDMA was widespread in the US and England, but in a different context than later, and with different results. Ecstasy was usually taken alone or with a small group of people. 90% of consumers in one American study reported that the drug made them feel euphoric, more talkative and closer to other people. Some called him “the drug of love.” In the late 1980s, the drug was redefined not in the pharmacological, but in the cultural sense. Rave in England provided a “new” formula, a new culture. And it is this new cultural context, unfortunately, created the conditions for the previously unknown death potential of Ecstasy. Before this “reformulation”, only a handful of accidents were reported, mainly related to cardiac arrhythmias in persons with previous illnesses.
In 1984, its use in the US was ubiquitous, and it is not surprising that the Agency for Drug Control banned various “new” drugs, including ecstasy, the following year. In July 1985, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) placed the substance on the list of illegal drugs. All possible uses of this substance for scientific, recreational or medical purposes were banned in the United States in 1985 and in the United Kingdom in 1986. List I (Schedule I) combines substances with a high potential for abuse and lack of medical utility. It also includes substances such as heroin, LSD, MDA.
In the 1990s, however, there was widespread use of ecstasy as a recreational drug and increased reports of an apparent link between the use of ecstasy and a variety of psychological and psychiatric abnormalities.
The first penetration of ecstasy from America to Europe was influenced by the followers of Bhagwan Rajneesh. The ravers who used this drug in Ibiza (then known as the XTC island) brought it back to England for use in countrywide parties. Ecstasy became an alternative to LSD drug, which also began to be applied in the application to “acid” music. Thanks to the actions of the police to end these debacles, the phenomenon was reduced to clubs, and a small movement of “acid” music grew into a national rave culture. Ecstasy became so popular in England that it was considered a threat to the alcohol industry.
In Russia and Ukraine, MDMA (ecstasy) and MDA are classified as drugs in the 90s. Clandestine laboratories manufacturing MDMA are located mainly in Western Europe, mostly in countries such as the Netherlands and Belgium. But, according to some sources, the main deliveries of ecstasy are from Israel, where the production of this substance is put on stream and controlled by criminal groups. From Israel, ecstasy also reaches the United States. MDMA is a smuggled goods, it is transported using courier services or by sealing in minimal doses in postal envelopes of urgent mail. In nightclubs, at discotheques, it can be bought for 15-30 dollars per dose …
What do we know about Extasy?
Ecstasy is the slang term for 3, 4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), the other slang names for which are X, E, XTC, Adam, etc.
The chemical name is XTC – MDMA. MDMA is a derivative of amphetamine (as well as PEP or SPEED). He has not only an exciting effect, but also changes the state of consciousness.
XTC is a chemical substance that is manufactured in the laboratory and enters the market in the form of a different color of tablets, pills or capsules. The XTC pills contain 75 to 135 mg of the active ingredient.
In addition to XTC, there are many other amphetamine derivatives that also exert both stimulatory and mind-altering effects (such as MDEA or MDA). Some of these substances have a stronger effect than XTC (for example, MDA), and can – depending on the dose – have a threefold effect that can last the whole day.
In the Netherlands, the CTC is on the list of banned substances since November 1988. According to the Opium Act, HTS is a “heavy” drug. This means that consumption, production and trade are punishable. As a consequence, the drug is produced in secret, and quality control is difficult. When you buy pills, you practically never know what exactly you are buying. It may be XTC or MDEA, but also one of the more potent substances, such as MDA. Sometimes it may be PEP / SPEED, caffeine, paracetamol or plain NEP. And even if you take real XTC pills, they can differ in the strength of the action.
XTC, in comparison with other drugs, is on the market recently, so far not all is known about this substance. There is still uncertainty about possible bodily or mental disorders associated with prolonged or excessive consumption of HCV. If you consume XTC, then you make yourself a guinea pig.
Usually, XTC is taken orally (swallowed), although intranasal and inhalational administration is possible, as well as in the form of subcutaneous, intramuscular and intravenous injections.
Currently, E is strictly prohibited in many countries, including Russia. Appropriate legislation has been adopted, prohibiting the use of E even for experimental purposes. It is also forbidden to produce, sell or even own E. You can also disseminate information about it that is not published in open sources.
“PiHKAL: The Chemical History of Love”
Alexander and Anne Shulgin, 1991
“Ecstasy, the history of MDMA”
Eischner B., 1994
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